Hours 30 – 33: IR Recording Part 1 -University Campus

Hello! I’m back again, this time i’ll be detailing the extensive IR recording i’ve been doing at the moment. I’m really excited about all of the impulse responses i’ve been recording, and my plan is to put them together as a little free collection on my site for anyone to download and use as they want. For now though, i’ll explain how and where I recorded this first batch, and the hopefully the IR library will follow in the near future.

I decided to begin recording in a location I currently have free access to: my university. I captured IR for classrooms, lecture theaters, hallways, stairwells, foyers and other cool sounding spaces. I adopted an almost guerrilla approach to recording, having all of my kit in my backpack, and I developed a method by which I could unpack my recording gear, pop the balloon, and be on my way again in a matter of minutes. Obviously, in light of events in recent years, many people are nervous of hearing the extremely loud bang of a balloon popping, particularly in an educational institution. With this in mind, I decided to keep my presence scarce, and have the ability to capture what I wanted and move on very quickly.

For those that are reading this and wondering on earth I was doing recording  balloons in a university, I was creating something called an ‘impulse response’, or IR, which essentially captures the sound of a physical space. You exite the reverb in the room by using a sound to stimulate it, record this reverb and then specific audio plugins (called a convolution reverb) can do some crazy maths magic, and take away the initial sound that excited the space, leaving you with a reverb that you can process sounds with.
Usually, reverb is created algorithmically – a computer will simulate how reverb sounds in the real world, by rapidly playing duplicates of the original source with decreasing volume (it’s a lot more complex than that, but there’s the jist). Convolution reverb, which uses impluse reponses to generate reverb, is much more exciting from a sound design perspective – as you’re using an actual recording of a physical space in your game (or film and music) world. It’s particularly exciting in games, as the sonic details of an environment can be created with a lot more precision and ‘life’ in the sound. The human ear can tell very well when something is fake – and often (but increasingly less frequently as technology progresses) people can tell when a reverb is digital, and this removes them from the gameplay experience. I’m investing in recording my own IR’s for a number of reasons – but largely because i’d like to use them in my own game projects to make stuff feel more real.

The space can be ‘excited’ in a number of different ways – some people use a method by which they play a sine sweep – a sine wave that moves between a very low frequency and a very high frequency (usually 20hz to 20khz) – and the convolution reverb will then remove the sine wave and leave the reverb. This technique is both good and bad, but unfortunately inaccessible to me personally, as it requires some kind of portable sound system to play the sine wave in the space – which is an added complication to the endeavor.
You can also use a short, transient sound, like a gunshot or a balloon pop, to do the same thing. Some people use starter pistols too. I decided to use balloons, as they are cheap, extremely portable and ideal loudness for my needs (they’re really loud).


So I picked up a variety of different balloons from my local pound shop – and used them to record various IR’s around the university building. I chose my typical setup for field recording, the sound devices 633, with a matched pair of 414’s in the mid/side configuration. I’ve got this down to fine art now, i think, and have the mics set up on a stereo bar with a mini mic stand for portability. I love the width of mid/side and I think the focus of the center mic is great for capturing a punchy impact of the balloon pop. It also all collapses down into my backpack, which as I mentioned, is key. Also worth mentioning that I decided to record without the limiter on the 633. I was really torn between using the limiter or not – as obviously, with the limiter on, it doesn’t peak as much, and squashes the sound into a much more flat dynamic response (at least, that’s what i’m hearing). When I experimented without the limiter on, I found the sound a lot nicer – with a much more realistic sounding dynamic character when processed. (that being said, the limiter on the 633 is meaty as hell – crank the gain on a hard knee limiter and clap in a slightly live room, and you’ve got an instant 80’s gated reverb thing going on. awesome).

So I’ll share a couple of the recordings I made. Some of the spaces gave very weird responses, which I’ll talk about in a little more detail below. I recorded both interior and exterior responses, in various different places. I’ve noticed that exterior IR are hard to come by, so I thought i’d experiment myself with creating them.

I began on a balcony on the third floor, overlooking the train-tracks. I knew this area had a great slapback reverb, due to the large building placed adjacent to the balcony. Unfortunately the presence of the train-track meant there was some considerable noise, but I managed to capture the IR while there was no trains around.


So these are two samples of the recordings from this location. I was pretty pleased with how they turned out. As you can hear, there is still a significant amount of noise in the background – although these examples are unprocessed, other than the mid/side encoding, and are raw from the recorder. The slapback almost sounds like a gunshot I think – and I was really impressed with how much the balloon excited the space – even in a large, open space, such as this. Irritatingly on the second recording, there were some pigeons next to me that I hadn’t spotted – and they fluttered away after the bang. You can faintly hear it, hopefully it shouldn’t be too difficult to remove during editing. Below are the two examples – please be aware that these are likely to be very loud – so be careful when listening back to them.

The rest of the recordings I forgot to take photos of the locations. Doh. But i’ll share some of the more interesting ones below.

This one is from a large lecture hall – the largest I have access to. You could almost call it an auditorium, maybe. Anyway, it has a very weird reverb response, as you can hear in the sample below. I think that is might be because there are some weird alcoves in the ceiling – and the sound waves becomes trapped in there before they dissipate. I’m honestly unsure of how effective it’d be for a normal reverb – but i’m sure you could make some very cool creative sound design stuff out of it. A lazer maybe. Check it out below – again, it’s very loud.

The next location was under a large bridge on my uni campus – it’s a bridge over a large body of water, so there’s another cool slapback type thing going on. This one was a real struggle, as I had to time the balloon pop to be with the least amount of traffic as possible – which was difficult, as it’s a big road. I managed to grab a second or two of relative silence, and popped the balloon in that time. The sound is very cool – much like the first IR of the traintrack. Unfortunately there is a lot of noise, moreso than the other exterior I think. But hopefully something that can be cleaned up with some careful EQ.

And the last one for now is another bridge, this time a slightly different shape, with a very interesting sonic phenomenon occurring. It’s a concave space, a kind of tunnel, underneath a road. It’s like a half cylinder. It’s all concrete, and as a result, the sound seems to congregate and do some weird things inside of it. I found a picture of the entrance to the tunnel online so have an idea of what the space is like – it’s not the best quality, but I forgot to grab a photo while I was there.


The sound appears to almost dissipate and then re-emerge, which is really strange. I think the sounds might bounce out to the walls and then possibly follow the curve of the structure. I’m not sure. It’d probably be best for someone who really understands acoustics to explain what the sound is doing here – judge for yourself, the recording is below. Unfortunately the sound is a little quiet at the end, so i’ve boosted it to be a bit clearer what’s going on – this has also increased the background noise.

Pretty cool. That’s it for now, more IR posts on the way soon.

Thanks for reading!



Hours 30 – 33: IR Recording Part 1 -University Campus

Hours 28 – 30: Night Ambience and more Rain

Hello! I’m back again, this time with a bit more ambience. I spent the weekend at home (for Easter) and had the opportunity to record a few bits while I was there. I brought a fairly simple setup, a Zoom H4n and a Rode NT-4 stereo X/Y mic. I had to keep it lightweight, as I came back on the train and only brought my backpack to carry stuff. It worked out well, as usual the Zoom was unfortunately a little noisy, but from prior experience, I knew this was to be expected.

I got a couple of hours worth of recordings, a bit of rain and some night-time ambience.

I captured the rain because I had the opportunity to – I never seem to have a recorder at the ready when rain strikes, so when it began raining this weekend, I took advantage of the fact I had a recorder and mic ready to go. I captured about an hour of rain, and i’m sure it’ll come in handy at somepoint. I had to chase my cat away from the mic a few times, but other than that I got a solid recording. Again, as I mentioned, there is the noise issue with the Zoom – but rain is largely white noise anyway, so I think it blended in.

It’s not really heavy rain – it’s actually quite light and airy. I think used the right way, it could be a really cool ambient element for a rainforest, perhaps. Here’s a little clip:

The other recording I made was just of the night-time ambience. It was quite late, around 1am-ish, and I left the recorder going for about an hour. It’s a nice still ambient sound, again a bit of noise from the zoom, but nothing too bad. I think it’d work nicely as the base for an ambience – it’ll likely end up in Taphobos in some form. There’s some minimal traffic in the background, but not too prominently. There’s some movement in the recording, that, weirdly, I think came from the bushes in my garden. I was sat still listening to everything in my headphones, and it was pretty unnerving to clearly hear movement in the bushes just next to me. You can hear below:

Of course I forgot to take pictures. But that’s okay, as it was dark anyway.

Thanks for reading!




Hours 28 – 30: Night Ambience and more Rain

Hours 27 – 28: Convolution IR Experiment

So today I did something i’ve meaning to do for about 3 years – experiment with impulse response recording. I popped down to poundland and picked up a bag of balloons, and spent the day popping them and recording the results.

I’ve got three little demos of the IR I recorded, which i’m actually really impressed with. I’m thinking, as it’s so easy to record an IR, I might spend a little time over the next few weeks, gathering up as many as I can. I’m also going to experiment with exterior IR recordings, something I haven’t seen done all that much. stay posted.

Anyway, he’s a few cool bits I recorded today. This first one is from the alleyway in my house, leading to the front door. It’s a stone alley, possibly about 7-8 meters long, and it has a really sweet reverb. I’ve been intending to record something in there for a while. As I mentioned, a used a balloon pop as my sonic exciter, and in this case, I recorded it with my tascam recorder. The result was really cool. Below is the IR itself and a little demo of my voice – a dry recording of me, a mix of dry and wet from the convolution reverb, and just the wet signal from the IR.

The space:


and what it sounded like:


The second IR I recorded was in a little cup. I’d heard about people recording impulse responses in glass bowls and bottles, and suchlike, so I thought i’d give it a shot with a little metal mug I have in my room. It’s a cool sound, and it’d probably find a use somewhere. I think recording small objects for their sonic characteristics is a great way to make decent helmet recordings for any space/astronaut type stuff you may be working on. I think it may have been Gravity that I read about using this technique with an IR to get a nice boxy helmet sound to put the voice into. I stuck my tascam recorder into the cup and popped the balloon next to it. I think it picked up quite well, and the result is very usable.

This is the cup (it’s kinda like a camping mug type thing):


and this is what it sounded like:


and lastly, while I was recording the bowed cymbals (in my last post), I also popped a balloon and grabbed an IR of the stairwell I was in. The space was huge, and the impulse response is really impressive. I was most impressed with the fact my voice actually sounds a lot like it does in the actual space, in the demo i’ve done with the convolution reverb. it’s really similar. I used the mic setup I used in that post, mid/side 414’s, and a U87 at a distance, into the sound devices 664. I think this one sounds the best, which is largely because of that mic setup and the pre’s on the sound devices. I didn’t really grab a picture of the space unfortunately, so you’ll have to use your imagination. i’d like to think i’m in the VAB.

this is what it sounded like:

anyway, that’s all for now! as always, thanks for reading.



Hours 27 – 28: Convolution IR Experiment

Hours 26 – 27: Bowed Cymbals

Hello! Back again. This evening I took a number of cymbals (the drumkit kind), and my trusty cello bow, to the 4th floor of my university building. I’ve played with bowing cymbals a little before – but today I decided I wanted to capture them properly, in a cool sonic environment.

In our university building, we have a two stairwells, 4 floors high, that have an epic reverb. The floors and walls are largely bare, and one whole side is windows, meaning the sound waves have nowhere to hide – and the result is this massive verb. I decided I wanted to capture the bowed cymbal in this fantastic ambient space, as it’d help to draw out a lot of the harmonics of the sounds produced (and elongate the sound in a pleasant way).


I used my standard setup, 414’s in mid/side, into the sound devices 664. I also put a Neumann U87 on omni about 10-15 meters away, to mix into the sound as I see fit. It captured a little more reverb, and the sound at a distance. I had initially intended to go A-B with the 414’s, but I found that there wasn’t enough focus in the stereo field – so I switched to M/S. I had the pair of 414’s maybe about a meter from the sound source, as I wanted to try and capture as much of the detail of the sound as I could. Thanks to jack martin for the ‘action’ shots below.

So the sound was pretty sweet. It instantly evoked that horror movie esq feel, and i’m definitely going to be using in my sound design work in the future. I think, from a critical standpoint, my only real problem with the sound is the presence of the scatchy bow – when the bow doesn’t connect properly and vibrate the cymbal, it makes a kind of weird raspy noise. It’s kinda cool but I think were I to use the recordings in my work, i’d try and automate that out, as much as I could.

Anyway, here’s what a cymbal being played with a bow sounds like. As usual, pretty raw from the record, other than the mid/side processing, a bit of balancing between mics and editing up some cool bits. Enjoy!

So that’s it for now, as always, thanks for reading!



Hours 26 – 27: Bowed Cymbals

Hours 25 – 26: Car Audio Implementation

Hello! Back again, with a very cool one this time. This technically isn’t a recording post (so I only sacrificed an hour) but I uses recordings I made a little while ago, which i’ve implemented into UE4.

I posted about my car recording a few weeks ago, something that actually happened a few months previous. Tonight, however, I decided I’d look at the recordings in more detail, and see what I could do with them in Unreal. I had initially intended, back when we recorded the car, to cut up the recordings and arrange them together on a linear timeline, along with some first person game driving footage. After having a go, I decided this was beyond impossible – as the tuning of the car engine is something that I think we are very used to, and it sticks out a mile when it sounds wrong. I struggled to construct gear shifts and pitch rises on a linear timeline that made sense to the ear.

However, I pulled up one of the car game templates in UE4 this evening, and it turned out their audio implementation wasn’t as tricky as i’d expected, and I found their engine was just made up of three recordings, that were blended together as an RPM parameter rose. I hopped over to my car recordings, pulled out three sections in vary degrees of engine intensity and, looped them (to the best of my limited looping ability) and put them in.


Ignore the mixers, I was experimenting with a surface layer but decided to leave it out as it muddied up the sound a lot.

Some wizardry in blueprint controls the movement between the 3 parameters on the crossfade by parameter node, I just jumped on the cue architecture and used my own sounds. I’ll teach myself to set this up properly the next time I attempt to implement a car, I think.

I drove my sounds around a little and I found that it did sound cool, but there were a few issues I could hear. I decided to set up a few bits in the blueprint to make the sound a little better. It’s worth noting here that my blueprint skills are very minimal, and the way i’ve done this probably isn’t the best way. I’ll explain how I think I could improve it as I go along.

start engine

So I set an ‘Up’ arrow key command, this denotes acceleration. I created a separate idle engine sound cue, independent to the main engine sound cue, and i’ll explain why below.

This is a little setup to show what happens when you begin driving: the idle sound fades out, to start with. I wanted to blend it a little with the main engine sound, so there’s a relatively long fade time (0.4). I then cut a small engine ‘start-up’ sound from the recordings, it’s essentially just a little sound that I felt denoted the engine spurring into life. Before that was there, the engine essentially just faded in, and it felt wrong to listen to. After that small engine begin recording, I then fade the main engine cue in. All of these audio components refer to my sound cues. The engine then accelerates through the different looped recordings, until the ‘Up’ key is released, or the ‘Down’ key is pressed:

end engine.png

I decided, for fun mainly, that i’d set up a tire screech to play every-time you break. We recorded some awesome tire screeches, so it seemed a waste not to use them. It doesn’t work especially well when you break at slow speeds, maybe a similar parameter based system to the engine sound, that works with the RPM/speed, would be good – to choose a more appropriate stop sound depending on the speed. So upon pressing the down arrow, you trigger the screech sound – just as a 2D sound. I only put one variation in, but again, next time i’d add more variations to get it sounding more natural.
After that I fade out the main engine sound, and again this felt a little un-natural. I looked through the recordings, and pulled out this very subtle sound, which I think is the engine fan slowing down – I fade this ‘engine end’ in as the main engine fades out.
I then bring the idle sound in, the same one that is cancelled out in the first cue when you press the ‘Up’ arrow. This idle cue then loops indefinitely while the car isn’t moving.

I hope this explains a little of what I did to achieve the implementation. There are a number of issues with it that I can see – the loops aren’t great, for starters, as we recorded the engine rising and falling, thus I had to make the loops quite short to encapsulate the sound I wanted, and as a result the looping points are pretty obvious. I don’t think they are terrible, but they’re not 100% perfect yet.
There’s no sound to indicate any kind of gear shift – the car setup in this example doesn’t have any gear system anyway, so that’s mainly why I haven’t bothered with that.
The revs aren’t perfect either – I feel like it starts too high, and doesn’t reach a high enough acceleration sound to feel natural.
The sound itself isn’t incredible – mainly due to the original recordings. I think the next time we attempt the car recording, we’ll concentrate on the mic setup a little more (particularly the exhaust). As I’ve already mentioned, the tire screech is just one recording, next time i’ll implement a few variations to keep it sounding real.

But all in all, i’m pleased with how it has turned out. You can listen to it in all its glory below:

I welcome all suggestions on how to make it better!

As always, thanks for reading.




Hours 25 – 26: Car Audio Implementation

Hours 20 – 25: Country Park

Wahoo! I’ve made it 1/4 through the hours. I’m definitely proud, I hope you are too. I did a massive big long recording session on Saturday last weekend, and this is an expansive look at what I recorded.

This again, was a day of ambience recording. it’s worth noting that this is largely going into a couple of games i’m working on at the moment, and i’m trying to gather as much of a variety of ambience as I possibly can. both of the games I have in mind to use these recordings for both contain worlds where traffic noise would be inappropriate, and as such, i’m attempting to go to places that are as far from traffic as is possible (although as i don’t drive, my travel options are limited – and most locations have to walk-able).

Anyway, this time round I decided to head down to a fairly large country park, about an hour or so walk from my house. I think I arrived at the park at about 2/3ish, and I didn’t get home til about half 9 in the evening. During that time I recorded lots of wonderful natural ambience, at different locations around this park.

For all of these recordings, I decided to try another new mic technique – this time I just went with a matched pair of 414’s, and used a stereo bar to employ the A-B setup, again into the 664 (recording to CF), monitored on a pair of KRK headphones. I’m actually a really big fan of the A-B technique, and in my person opinion, it has provided me with the best stereo ambience i’ve recorded so far. I do like mid-side, but I feel like A-B is the closest (to my ears) to actually being there in the space. To me, the mid-side recordings felt un-natural to listen to so much sonic information being captured from the front – when the ears expect to be hearing from an equally spaced distance around the head. I think in this respect, the A-B almost mimics your own ears – not to the extent of replicating the actual shape of the ear (like binaural microphones), but with a similar width of the microphones to the width of your ears. At the end of the day, ambience isn’t always intended to be heard from the first-person perspective – so I guess mid-side is just as relevant a technique as A-B.

I really enjoyed using A-B in this scenario too, as I worked out a really easy set up/down with the stereo bar and 414’s. Throughout the day I got it down to just a couple of minutes to set up and pack down, plus with great sounding equipment, that was also really easy to carry in my bag, it was pretty ideal. I think i’ll stick with A-B for my ambience in the future.

I started off by the side of one of the big lakes, and captured a nice amount of birds and other wildlife. Regrettably, although a fair distance from the road, I still managed to pick up something of a bed of traffic in the recording, albeit fairly low. I got a few odd looks from strangers (always to be expected) and sat there for about an hour and a half. Again, recording into the 664 – I felt a little guilty to be using just two of the six channels.


Below is just a minute or so of the recording – you can hear the traffic isn’t great, but with a little bit of a clean up (this is raw from the recorder) I think this is a pretty decent ambience.

Next I moved deeper into the woods, and set up among some tall trees. Again I set the mics up a bit of a distance, and sat for about an hour or so. I was only disturbed by an inquisitive dog at one point – other than that I captured some nice natural ambience.


Below is a sample of this recording, again, with a bed of traffic. Listening back to these recordings with a critical ear on my monitors, i’m find the traffic to be far more clear than I have initially suspected. I think the next ambient recording I do, I’ll have to find somewhere really secluded.

Anyway, after that I walked for another half an hour or so and got lost. I walked too far into the woods, and lost my bearings. Thanks to trust google maps, I managed to get back on track again, but it cost me a good hour. But that time, it had suddenly got really, really dark. It went from early evening haze to almost completely pitch black within the space of half an hour. I continued walking through the woods, back towards the park entrance, and I heard an owl cooing. It sounded fantastic, so, despite the fact it was now almost pitch black, I sat down on a bench, set up my kit and recorded for about 45 mins.

Again, there was some road noise, but it had subsided a bit as it was later in the day. For some odd reason, there was a multitude of birds chirping a few hundred meters behind me, but they also subsided after a while. The owl itself was really lovely, as you can hear in the recording. I was amazed at how Hollywood it does actually sound – I can’t say I’ve really spent much time around real owls (sadly) but it sounded exactly how I’ve been led to beleive they do.
As I sat there, it became darker and darker, until I could no longer see the path before and behind me. I’ll be honest and say, this was legitimately really scary – and i’m not usually scared by much. I have sucky eyesight, and for some stupid reason I decided to not wear my contacts or glasses – so as the dark drew closer, my eyes began to see shapes and movements in the surrounding black that probably weren’t there. I sat for as long as I possibly could – comforted by the fact I could still hear the road – and made the recording below.


I think the owl sounds awesome. I wish i’d stayed for longer, but by the time I’d sat there for almost an hour, all I wanted to do was get home. check out 3:27, there’s an awesome owl coo.

I found my way out of the park, and paused near the entrance to make one final recording – by this time the traffic had subsided even moreso, and I decided to quickly set up and grab some ‘silence’. It wasn’t really silence, at all, but put low in a mix, I think it’d be a nice soft outdoor ambience.


Here’s a bit of the so-called ‘silence’. I think it’s definitely a use-able recording, again, maybe with a little clean up. As usual, this is raw from the recorder.

So that rounds it up for the mean time, thanks for reading and listening thus far. I’m considering some more exciting recordings for the near future, maybe another car, possibly some cool metal impacts, and i’d really love to try and record some guns. Who knows. we’ll see what happens.

Thanks again for reading!



Hours 20 – 25: Country Park

Hours 18 – 20: By the Brayford

Where I live, we have this big old canal type thing running through the city, called the ‘Brayford’. For anyone unfamiliar with English canals, they’re really not that nice, most of the time. I chose to record by the canal, as I knew that there was a large woodland near to it, and it was also a relatively good distance away from the nearest road. Today’s recordings are from that location.

I was pretty lucky to grab the portable recorder all weekend – and excited to find we have a sound devices 664 in temporarily, a 6 input recorder. It’s essentially the 633 – just with 3 extra inputs. But it was still nice to work with a new bit of kit. And it’s pretty sexy:

I elected to record mid/side again, as I was impressed with the recordings i’d made before with the technique. I decided to get a little exotic with my mic choices, and went with a Neumann U87 for the figure 8 and a AKG SE300 with a cardioid capsule, which proved to be interesting choices. I had the pair on two little mic stands – and used two ‘dead kittens’ to keep out the wind (legitimately what they’re called).

I walked down to where I knew was relatively isolated from the road, and set up camp. I set my mics up, and went into the 664. After a bit of fiddling to try and remember how to set up a mid/side recording (see soundcloud clip below), I was on my way and began the recording.

The recordings came out pretty nicely. There’s a little pre-amp noise – which is a tad disappointing, but nothing that can’t be fixed with a bit of RX. I did also find it a struggle to sit perfectly still for so long (always something I can’t do well) and for some stupid reason I forgot to bring a coat, so I slowly got colder and colder whilst sat in just a tshirt.


I had a bit of faff getting the recordings from the 664 – as it seems it doesn’t move data files via USB, for some unknown reason. Personally I feel like this is a pretty basic feature, but I guess they must have left it off for a reason. I recorded to CF this time – and had to pop it out to transfer the files over.

I processed the recording in the usual manner, doubling the figure 8 channel and flipping the phase. I did it in audacity – as FL was messing me around a bit. The stereo spread is great – i’m a big fan of the width and focus of the recording.

Something else quite impressive I stumble on also – when I pulled the recording into my DAW, I noticed a weird artifact in the audio: it seemed there was some kind of periodic noise, occurring almost in-beat, as can be seen in the waveform below. I was worried as I thought it may have been a fault with the recorder, or possibly something un-natural sound in the background I hadn’t noticed (an industrial hum or buzz, maybe).


I’m not 100% sure, but I think that’s the birds. I can’t hear anything else in the recording that may have produced that kind of rhythmic sound, and the birdsong does appear to fluctuate in sync with the minor peaks in the audio. I truly love that – this sound we take for granted, that our brain usually filters out as background noise, is actually this rhythmic symphony of sound. I was amazed at just how rhythmic it is – it’s literally almost in-beat.

Decide for yourself, but I think it’s pretty amazing. As usual, a small sample of the recording is below, unedited other than the mid/side encoding, and small fades at the start and end. The rhythmic birdsong even shows up in the soundcloud waveform – see if you can hear any rhythm in the ambience.

That’s it for now! I’m literally about to head out now to record some more, so hopefully the next blog will be up fairly soon.

Thanks for reading!



Hours 18 – 20: By the Brayford